3.3.1. Rules for drawing roads and sections of road
- 22.214.171.124. Drawing rules for whole road networks
- 126.96.36.199. Rules for drawing roads in one/two arcs (one or two lines)).
- 188.8.131.52. Rules for drawing straight and curved road sections and turns
- 184.108.40.206. Rules for drawing u-turns with two lines
- 220.127.116.11. Rules for drawing intersections
- 18.104.22.168. Drawing rules for sidewalks, pedestrian paths, and bike paths
- 22.214.171.124. Rules for drawing road barriers
- 126.96.36.199. Rules for drawing seasonal roads
Be careful when drawing roads. The road network is used to set routes, so drawing errors can lead to routing mistakes.
Techniques for drawing and editing road sections are similar to the techniques for drawing and editing all linear items on YME.
There is a tool for drawing circular road sections.
When you draw a road section, keep in mind that certain drawing rules relate to features of the road in question (rather than to that particular road section). For example, some roads are drawn with a single line and others with two lines (for more information, see Section 188.8.131.52. Rules for drawing roads in one/two arcs (one or two lines)).).
This is why the drawing rules for sections of road include:
- Drawing rules for roads and whole road networks:
- Drawing rules for sections of road:
When drawing road elements, the points where the road elements intersect (the start or end point of each element) form independent objects of type “Intersection”. Intersections are created automatically when drawing road sections and can be used to edit the road network (for more information, see Section 2.9. Intersections) and to set road conditions, traffic lights, and speed cameras.
When drawing roads, do not create road sections and their intersection boundaries excessively. The start and end points of road sections must overlap:
— With intersections
— With points where road section attributes change their values (such as changes in speed limits, or a road section passing the boundary of another traffic installation like a bridge or a tunnel, etc.)
184.108.40.206. Drawing rules for whole road networks
Road networks should be connected: all fragments of a road network that forms in a given area should be connected on the map. For example:
If you can only get to a certain “isolated” road section by railroad or ferry crossing (but not by motorway), then the road network should include these railroad and ferry crossings, and you should add attributes to them accordingly (see Section 220.127.116.11. Type of structure).
Roads that are under construction can be connected to road networks via lower-class roads (see point 3.2.11).
When you draw the road network, make sure that you don't overlap different road sections, draw a section that intersects with itself, or duplicate road sections:
When you draw an item on the map, the program monitors if the drawing is correct and reports any errors to you:
But not all errors are recognized automatically.
When you draw bends in roads or intersections, the end points of road sections that form crossings should meet and form an intersection. There should not be any “hanging points” (other than in cases where the road is blocked in that area):
When you draw road sections that go over bridges, pay attention to the displacement of the bridge on the satellite image (for more information, see Section 18.104.22.168. Bridges).
You don't have to include certain minor details in your drawing of the road network.
You shouldn't draw individual entrances to every home in a private development:
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This doesn't apply to class 10 paths that have a hard surface and form a regularly-shaped pattern located within parks, squares, etc. For such cases, you should fully draw the whole path network. For example:
Only draw roads leading to roofs for buildings that belong to the “utility and storage” type.Only draw roads in underground and multi-level parking lots in the following cases:
- The parking area is located under a shopping or business center.
- The public parking area is located in a “utility and storage” building and the road doesn't lead outside the premises.
For such cases, you can draw the few roads that connect all of the building's entrances and exits:
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To ensure connectivity between roads on one-way entrances to and exits from underground parking lots, set the traffic to A ⇆ B if the roads are cut off near a building's polygon.
Motorways that cross through several countries (which are usually Numbered highways like the M-1 in Belarus, the M-2 in Crimea, etc.), are broken into fragments at national borders.
This allows you to link the road to the administrative division (country) where it is located. The road will be divided into fragments that correspond to the territories of the different countries that it runs through:
On territories that are regularly developed, vegetation may intersect with motorways that are class 10 (Pedestrian and bike paths), 9 (Forest and field roads) or 7 (Roads of minimal significance) and are only accessible to pedestrians and/or bicyclists.
Outside of territories that are regularly developed, vegetation may intersect with railways and motorways that are drawn using a single line.
Both outside of and on territories that are regularly developed, vegetation of the “Park, square”, “Nature reserve” and with “Cemetery” types may intersect with motorways of any type if these roads are exit ramps to these areas of vegetation or passages through said areas.
See also point 22.214.171.124.
When you draw roads that intersect with locality borders, you must split the border at the intersection point (creating two road sections).Note.
Streets linked to a locality should be located entirely within the borders of that locality. See section 126.96.36.199.
Don't change the main road's shape if you're drawing the road expanding and getting new lanes near toll booths and border checkpoints. Checkpoint passages don't need dedicated lines.
- Draw a u-turn site for public transport along the site's perimeter using the line of a class-8 road, which is one-way in the direction of public transport movement and accessible only to public transport in the following cases:
- The u-turn site is separated from the main roadway by marking.
- The u-turn site largely extends the roadway and includes a stop or parking area for public transport.
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Areas leading to gas stations should be drawn using class 8 road sections, even if they aren't separated from the main road by barriers or markings.
188.8.131.52. Rules for drawing roads in one/two arcs (one or two lines)).
There are two ways to draw roads on Yandex Map Editor:
In “one line” (for both one-way and two-way roads):
In “two lines” (one representing each traffic direction):
- 184.108.40.206.1. Two-line drawing
Road sections are drawn using two lines in the following situations:
When the road is a class 1 (expressway):
When a road has three or more traffic lanes in one direction or oncoming-traffic lanes delineated by a solid line (such as a road with a 3+2 lane structure):
If there is a central turning lane (as, for example, in the US) and it is the 3rd lane in one of the directions, the road is also drawn using two lines:
When the road has a physical median between the roadways:
- a) Barrier:
- b) Lawn:
- c) Tram rails elevated above the road:
Roads that have two or more traffic lanes in each direction with tram rails that can be used by cars (i.e. the rails are not raised above street level):
Or tram rails are separated from the car sections by solid traffic lane markings:
If a road drawn using two lines runs through a locality, continue to draw it using two lines:
- 220.127.116.11.2. One-line drawing
Every road, not having characteristics two-lane roads (see 18.104.22.168.1) must be drawn in one edge.
Don't draw additional road lines for a marked lane of oncoming or same-direction traffic of public transport:
If a road has multi-level interchanges, then draw the interchanges as you would the road itself (with either one or two lines):
For a short section of road, you should not switch between drawing one and two lines (even if the number of lanes or the road markings change). Within localities, a section less than one block long is considered a short section.
If the road has a physical divider, draw it using two lines. An exception to this rule is cases when a pair of items that physically separate traffic lanes (forming a “traffic island” at a pedestrian crossing) are positioned at a distance from each other that is less than or approximately equal to the width of the pedestrian crossing. For example, a pair of traffic lights or borders does not change the rendering of a single-lane road to a two-lane road:
You should not switch your drawing method for marked breaks in a solid double line or for a traffic island before an intersection:
Merging a two-line road into a one-line one should happen smoothly (otherwise the navigator may misinterpret the transition as a turn):
(the transition is smooth)
(the transition is abrupt)
(the transition is smooth)
(the transition is abrupt)
Draw lines down the middle of the roadway (for roads drawn using one line) and down the middle of the roadway going in each direction (for roads drawn using two lines):
Sections of road drawn using two lines should run parallel to each other if they are parallel in reality (green arrow on the drawing). Areas where the road narrows or widens are an exception to this rule (blue arrow on the drawing):
22.214.171.124. Rules for drawing straight and curved road sections and turns
Rules for drawing straight and curved road sections (these rules supplement the general rules for drawing linear items):
- 126.96.36.199.1. Drawing straight sections of road
Straight sections of road should not have intermediate vertexes:
- 188.8.131.52.2. Drawing curved sections of road
On curved sections of road, the number of vertexes should be sufficient so that angles at slight turns are not noticeable on maps at scale 19. You should not draw more points than are necessary to fulfill this requirement:
- 184.108.40.206.3. Drawing turns
Draw turns so that they look smooth (with no angles) when viewed on a map at scale 19. You should not draw more points than are necessary to fulfill this requirement (usually three points suffices):
To draw a smooth turn on a road, you can use the round corners tool or command.
220.127.116.11. Rules for drawing u-turns with two lines
If a road drawn using two lines has a u-turn:
Draw a two-way u-turn in fragments that run perpendicular to the lines you drew on the road.
If the u-turn lanes are separated from one another (by a barrier, median, lawn, or traffic island entered as markup), then draw the u-turn using two lines:
Draw one-way u-turns as arcs and indicate the traffic direction:
18.104.22.168. Rules for drawing intersections
Draw intersections to reflect the actual traffic situation there (in other words, take traffic signs, permitted turns, etc. into account regardless of if the roads that intersect there are drawn using one or two lines).
The following rules apply for drawing intersections:
If a road intersects with two different roads that only differ by name (in other words, the driver can navigate from one to the other without performing any maneuvers), then enter one general intersection point that applies to both of them (see upper drawing).
If this is not the case, then enter two intersection points (see lower drawing):
You should only mark separate lines for turns (or exit ramps) at intersections when the lanes for these turns are separated from the main roadway by a barrier, median, solid line, or traffic island entered on the map. You should not draw exit ramps for roads that widen by one or two lanes before an intersection.
Examples of cases where you show draw an exit ramp:
Examples of correct and incorrect exit ramp drawing:
Example of a correct exit ramp drawing when there is a physical barrier:
Draw the intersection formed by an exit ramp and the main road at the location where the solid line begins or ends on the lane along which further straight ahead movement is impossible and only exit traffic is possible.
For example, the drawings on the right show roads where the first lane is exclusively used for turning. The drawings on the left, on the other hand, show roads where the first lane can be used for turning or going straight:
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In the image below, the blue arrow indicates the correct point for starting to draw the exit ramp, and the red arrow points at an incorrect location:
- Connect exits to the main road at an acute angle, without rounding corners:
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When drawing intersections of one-line and two-line roads with barriers:
If one two-line road (and three one-line ones) approach an intersection, then the former may converge into a one-line road both before and after the intersection (depending on the situation):
Make the convergence of a two-line road into a one-line one smooth (see point 22.214.171.124.4).
If two two-line roads and one one-line, one-way road approach an intersection, then the convergence of the two-line road into one-line is not drawn down the middle of the road, but rather as indicated in the drawing on the left (the green arrows indicate the permitted traffic directions):
If two two-line roads (and one or two one-line roads) approach an intersection, then the former will converge into one-line roads after the intersection:
If a two-line road forms a T-shaped intersection with a one-line road, then the former will not converge into a one-line road:
If the intersection has two-line roads and barriers, then draw the intersection to reflect where vehicles can actually pass through:
T-shaped intersections should intersect at right angles (i.e. the corners should not be rounded). The green arrows on the left indicate an intersection that was drawn correctly. The red arrows indicates an incorrectly drawn intersection. On the right, an incorrect drawing was corrected:
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This rule applies to all classes of roads, including pedestrian paths. Draw intersections where a high-class road turns and adjoins a less significant road in a similar fashion.
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Turns are only drawn as smooth curves in cases where there is a physical divider or a corresponding marker on the map:
Circular road sections should not share intersection points:
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126.96.36.199. Drawing rules for sidewalks, pedestrian paths, and bike paths
The Pedestrian paths class comprises the following:
Roads that are not wide enough for vehicles
Roads within parks and cemeteries
Pedestrian walkways across railway tracks and motorways
Pedestrian staircases, bridges, and tunnels
When you draw pedestrian roads and sidewalks, you can use road color-coding to represent Pedestrian accessibility (i.e. use different colors to show whether or not a road is accessible to pedestrians).
Do not draw too many unpaved pedestrian roads (paths) on a restricted area (for example, in a single courtyard), even if they can be discerned from a satellite image. It is necessary to single out the key points among them (providing access to public service points, public transport stops, etc.) and draw only them.Note.
Don't draw items that resemble sidewalks or pedestrian paths but do not function as such (for example, commercial passageways):
You also shouldn't draw individual sections of pedestrian paths if they're completely isolated from the rest of the network.
For example, the entrance to this bridge is blocked off by permanently closed gates, which is why you shouldn't draw the bridge's road section:
Sidewalks, pedestrian and Bicycle paths are drawn on a conditional basis. “axial” lines.
Lines representing pedestrian crosswalks, sidewalks, and pedestrian zones should form a connected network with the entire road network as a whole.
Networks of alleys and pedestrian roads running through parking lots and cemeteries should connect in the proper location to sidewalks and motorways that have the accessible to pedestrian attribute marked.
For example, the solid green line indicates a sidewalk in the drawing, the dotted line represents a network of pedestrian paths in a cemetery, and the brown line — a section of motorway. The red arrow indicates the point where they intersect. A fragment of the broader road graph is displayed on the drawing:
Fragments of the road network accessible to pedestrians might be disconnected from one another.
For example, the pedestrian roads on the island of Kronstadt near St. Petersburg form a network that pedestrians cannot reach from other areas of the city (they only connect to the A-118 freeway-ringroad).
In similar situations do not artificially link the isolated sections of the road network available to pedestrians to each other, indicating accessibility to pedestrians where it is not available.
Exceptions to this rule are allowed in the situations described in 188.8.131.52.3.6.
- 184.108.40.206.3. Sidewalks
Draw sidewalks as separate roads if the sidewalk is separated off from the roadway by a physical barrier (grass, fences, etc.).
Draw sidewalks that are only separated from the road by the curb as separate roads running alongside roads of class 1-7:
The shoulder of a highway is not considered to be a sidewalk; do not draw it as a separate road.
If the shoulder of a road segment is accessible to pedestrians, then don't draw it as a sidewalk running along that segment, but rather add the accessible to pedestrian attribute to the applicable segment.
To ensure connectivity of the road network in areas where the pavement ends, but the further movement of pedestrians is possible on the side of the road, should smoothly join the line of the sidewalk and the road segment pedestrian road (in the picture the green dotted line):
Don't draw technical connections between pedestrian roads and sidewalks on freeways (class 1 roads). For example, the sidewalk line at a stop on the MKAD (Moscow ring road) ends on the map at the spot where the sidewalk physically ends:
In cases when there are no pedestrian overpass or pedestrian underpass, as well as when there are no signs or markings on the intersections (“zebras”), the pedestrian road passes through the intersection as an extension of the sidewalk line, if the road intersects:
There are no more than 3 traffic lanes
does not have a solid center line:
In places where a pedestrian road approaches a motorway, you can draw the intersection the following ways:
Along the pedestrian crosswalk (if there is one)
With no pedestrian crosswalk (if the intersecting motorway has no solid lane marker):
If the intersecting motorway has a solid lane marker, then you can draw the pedestrian road either as a separate road leading to the closest pedestrian crosswalk, or (if there is no road shoulder) you can draw it as a dead end:
- If part of the road network accessible to pedestrians is isolated from the larger road network accessible to pedestrians (for example, industrial zone roads facing a street without a sidewalk and curb on one side), it is allowed to draw a passageway: a class 10 intersecting road accessible to pedestrians, which will connect the isolated section of the road network to the sidewalk.
- In this case, the following conditions must be met:
- The passageway from the isolated section to the sidewalk does not cross a physical barrier (for example, a fence or lawn).
- The motorway crossed by the passageway has a total of no more than three lanes.
- Oncoming traffic lanes of the crossed motorway are not separated by a solid double line.
- A passageway (green line) is drawn:
A passageway (red line) is not drawn, or else it would have crossed a physical barrier ( lawn):
A passageway (red line) is not drawn, or else it would have crossed a motorway with more than three lanes:
- 220.127.116.11.4. Pedestrian crossing
Draw lines representing pedestrian crosswalks down the middle of the crosswalks themselves.
If the pedestrian crosswalk ends at a square that is accessible to pedestrians, then the points where the crossing ends and the entrance to the square begins are connected using segments of hypothetical pedestrian paths. Draw these paths at right angles from each other (if possible) and keep their use to a minimum.
Pedestrian roads display as yellow lines in the drawing, underground crossings — yellow dotted lines, hypothetical connecting paths — green lines:
Lines for aboveground and underground pedestrian crosswalks lead to the point where the ascent/descent begins (if the ascent/descent includes section of level ground, simplify your drawing so that there are no more than two sections):
Draw double pedestrian crosswalks (i.e. when two “zebra crossings” are located close to each other and you can only go in one direction on each of them) as a single line with the direction of traffic going both ways.
Only draw pedestrian crosswalks over railways in the following cases:
- If the crosswalk is aboveground
- If the crosswalk is underground
- If the crosswalk is clearly delineated at ground level (with barriers, a surface covering)
- 18.104.22.168.5. Bike paths
Only draw bike paths as separate roads in cases where they are physically distinguished from the surrounding area as bike paths and road signs/markings confirm this:
In all other cases it is enough to set the Accessible to bicyclists attribute for those sections of motorway (or pedestrian) roads.
If there is unrestricted access to a bike path from a pedestrian road/sidewalk, then the pedestrian roads connected to that sidewalk must lead to the bike path (and you should not change their accessibility marking):
If a pedestrian road passes through the interior of a building, you should only draw the road if the building it passes through is a security checkpoint leading to a restricted area that belongs to an organization.
22.214.171.124. Rules for drawing road barriers
To make sure that automatically plotted routes won't include road sections that are blocked by barriers (security checkpoints, lifting gates, fences, road signs like “Entrance prohibited” or “Traffic prohibited”, etc.) or pass through restricted territory, follow these rules for drawing road barriers:
Parts of the road that are set off from the road network by security checkpoints or lifting gates are drawn as separate road sections (other than checkpoints operated by the police, which are not marked with a “Restricted entry sign”). A road intersection is created at the location of a lifting gate or police security checkpoint. If the road section was created earlier, split it into two:
Add a road sign like “Restricted entry” to the intersection:
Exiting will remain unrestricted (i.e. you do not need to link the intersection with an exit restriction).
If there are several entrances to a territory (one for guests, one for service personnel, etc.), then add a Restricted entry “road sign” to all the entrances. For service entrances, you should also add a Restricted maneuver “road sign” at the same road intersection.
For example, the blue arrow marks the guest entrance on the drawing, the red arrow ─ the service entrance, and the green arrow ─ the location of the restricted maneuver sign (the same point where entry restrictions apply):Note.
If road sections are located in a territory that is not completely restricted (not all the entrances to the territory have checkpoints or barriers), then add a Restricted entry “road sign” in both directions to the entrances with checkpoints and barriers.
- Use the “Residential area” attribute to represent the “No traffic” and No motor vehicles signs (see section 126.96.36.199. Residential area).
- When drawing the road network on a territory that includes checkpoints or lifting gates, assign the road section accessibility value that reflects the real-world situation. If it is technically possible to travel within the borders of the territory in question, there are no additional restrictions by vehicle type posted on road signs, and an Entrance by Permit sign was already placed at the entrance or exit, then you should not remove the vehicle accessibility attribute.
The "No entry" sign is set using the Restricted maneuver “road sign”. Place the "Restricted maneuver" road sign directly at the road intersection after the actual location of the sign.
If there is a roadblock, the road should be split (e.g. a drive-through has been closed off by a concrete block or gates that go unused by either passers-by, staff, tenants, or corporate vehicles). C formed intersection two are linked condition of movement type's “Prohibited maneuver” (prevent passage through the barrier in both directions):
When the road network is drawn this way, it does noes not split at the location of the barrier, but no routes can be plotted that intersect with the barrier.
If driving is prohibited by traffic regulations (marking or road signs), but special documents (passes) allow part of the vehicles (or a specific car) to ignore the ban (for example, some trucks are allowed to ignore the ban on the entry of cargo transport inside Moscow's TTK), the traffic condition is affixed on a General basis: Prohibited maneuver, not Entry and entry restrictions (see para. 188.8.131.52.4).
184.108.40.206. Rules for drawing seasonal roads
Seasonal roads include ferry and ice crossings, and winter roads.
Due to the complete or partial absence of seasonal roads in satellite images, they are drawn using GPS tracks and official information confirming their existence and indicating the point of departure and destination.
- Ferry crossings are assigned the “ferry crossing” value for the Type of structure attribute. For ice crossings and winter roads, this attribute is left blank (its value is set to “No”).
For named seasonal roads, an “official” name can be indicated. Tthe name is not assigned “for the map caption”. See 220.127.116.11.3.4. Highways without a number, but with a proper name.
Ice crossings that are set up in place of or in the immediate vicinity of a ferry crossing (providing that their start and end points coincide with those points of the ferry crossing) are created by editing the attributes of the existing road sections.
Don't delete the ferry crossing from the map. All edits should be made to the existing road sections.