3.3.1. Rules for drawing roads and sections of road

Attention.

Be careful when drawing roads. The road network is used to set routes, so drawing errors can lead to routing mistakes.

Techniques for drawing and editing road sections are similar to the techniques for drawing and editing all linear items on YME.

These are described in sections 2.6.1.1. Simple linear items: drawing techniques, 2.6.1.2. Simple linear items: editing techniques.

There is a tool for drawing circular road sections.

When you draw a road section, keep in mind that certain drawing rules relate to features of the road in question (rather than to that particular road section). For example, some are drawn using one line and others — two lines (for more information, see point. 3.3.1.2. Drawing rules for roads with one or two lines

This is why the drawing rules for sections of road include:

When you draw sections of road, the points at the beginning and end of each section form an “Intersection” item. Intersections are created automatically when you draw road sections and may be used to edit the shape of the road network (for more information, see section 2.9. Intersections) and when entering road signs, traffic lights, and speed cameras.

3.3.1.1. Drawing rules for whole road networks

3.3.1.1.1

Road networks should be connected: all fragments of a road network that forms in a given area should be connected on the map. For example:

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If you can only get to a certain “isolated” road section by railroad or ferry crossing (but not by motorway), then the road network should include these railroad and ferry crossings, and you should add attributes to them accordingly (see section 3.3.2.6. Type of structure).

Roads that are under construction can be connected to road networks via lower-class roads (see point 3.2.11).

3.3.1.1.2

When you draw the road network, make sure that you don't overlap different road sections, draw a section that intersects with itself, or duplicate road sections:

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When you draw an item on the map, the program monitors if the drawing is correct and reports any errors to you:



But not all errors are recognized automatically.

3.3.1.1.3

When you draw bends in roads or intersections, the end points of road sections that form crossings should meet and form an intersection. There should not be any “hanging points” (other than in cases where the road is blocked in that area):

CorrectIncorrect




3.3.1.1.4

When you draw road sections that go over bridges, pay attention to the displacement of the bridge on the satellite image (for more information, see section 2.3.1.4. Bridges).

3.3.1.1.5

You don't have to include certain minor details in your drawing of the road network. You should not draw entrances to every home in a private development:

CorrectIncorrect
3.3.1.1.6

Don't draw roads in underground and multi-level parking structures and roads that lead to the roofs of buildings (such as in mall parking lots). See section 3.8.2.1. Rules for drawing parking lots.

Don't draw roads that run through industrial pavilions (see point 3.8.2.1.1.1):

CorrectIncorrect
3.3.1.1.6.1

The exception to this rule is for buildings in malls and business centers, where you can draw a few roads in underground parking structures that connect the entrances and exits to the buildings:

3.3.1.1.7

Motorways that cross through several countries (which are usually Numbered highways like the M-1 in Belarus, the M-2 in Crimea, etc.), are broken into fragments at national borders.

This allows you to link the road to the administrative division (country) where it is located. The road will be divided into fragments that correspond to the territories of the different countries that it runs through:

3.3.1.1.8

On territories that are regularly developed, vegetation may intersect with motorways that are class 10 (Pedestrian and bike paths), 9 (Forest and field roads) or 7 (Roads of minimal significance) and are only accessible to pedestrians and/or bicyclists.

Outside of territories that are regularly developed, vegetation may intersect with railways and motorways that are drawn using a single line.

Both outside of and on territories that are regularly developed, vegetation of the “Park, square”, “Nature reserve” and with “Cemetery” types may intersect with motorways of any type if these roads are exit ramps to these areas of vegetation or passages through said areas.

Also see point 3.9.1.5.

3.3.1.1.9

When you draw roads that intersect with locality borders, you must split the border at the intersection point (creating two road sections).

Note.

This is in keeping with the rule stating that roads linked to a locality should be located entirely within the borders of that locality. See point 3.3.1.4.3.3.3.1.4

3.3.1.1.10

When you increase the width of pay roads or the number of lanes where tolls are collected, the shape of the main road doesn't change.

Draw lines down the middle of the additional lanes that represent the same class as the main road:

3.3.1.1.11

Draw U-turn areas for public transport on class-8 roads as “circles”:

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3.3.1.2. Drawing rules for roads with one or two lines

There are two ways to draw roads on Yandex Map Editor:

  • In “one line” (for both one-way and two-way roads):

  • In “two lines” (one representing each traffic direction):

3.3.1.2.1. Two-line drawing

Road sections are drawn using two lines in the following situations:

3.3.1.2.1.1

When the road is a class 1 (expressway):

3.3.1.2.1.2

When a road has three or more traffic lanes in one direction or oncoming-traffic lanes delineated by a solid line (such as a road with a 3+2 lane structure):

3.3.1.2.1.3

When the road has a physical median between the roadways:

  • a) Barrier:




  • b) Lawn:
  • c) Tram rails elevated above the road:
3.3.1.2.1.4

Roads that have two or more traffic lanes in each direction with tram rails that can be used by cars (i.e. the rails are not raised above street level):

3.3.1.2.1.5

If a road drawn using two lines runs through a locality, continue to draw it using two lines:

3.3.1.2.2. One-line drawing

Draw all roads that don't meet the criteria for having two lines (see 3.3.1.2.1) with one line.

3.3.1.2.2.1

Roads with an oncoming public transport lane that is set off from other lanes by a solid line are drawn using one line:

3.3.1.2.3

If a road has multi-level interchanges, then draw the interchanges as you would the road itself (with either one or two lines):

3.3.1.2.4

For a short section of road, you should not switch between drawing one and two lines (even if the number of lanes or the road markings change).

If there is a physical divider on the road, draw that road using two lines (other than in cases where there is a physical divider before a crosswalk is shorter or approximately equal to the width of the crosswalk). For example:

You should not switch your drawing method for breaks in a solid double line or for a traffic island before an intersection:

Merging a two-line road into a one-line one should happen smoothly (otherwise the navigator may misinterpret the transition as a turn):

Correct

(the transition is smooth)

Incorrect

(the transition is abrupt)





3.3.1.2.5

Draw lines down the middle of the roadway (for roads drawn using one line) and down the middle of the roadway going in each direction (for roads drawn using two lines):





3.3.1.2.6

Sections of road drawn using two lines should run parallel to each other if they are parallel in reality (green arrow on the drawing). Areas where the road narrows or widens are an exception to this rule (blue arrow on the drawing):



3.3.1.3. Rules for drawing straight and curved road sections and turns

Rules for drawing straight and curved road sections (these rules supplement the general rules for drawing linear items):

3.3.1.3.1. Drawing straight sections of road

Straight sections of road should not have intermediate vertexes:

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3.3.1.3.2. Drawing curved sections of road

On curved sections of road, the number of vertexes should be sufficient so that angles at slight turns are not noticeable on maps at scale 19. You should not draw more points than are necessary to fulfill this requirement:

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3.3.1.3.3. Drawing turns

Draw turns so that they look smooth (with no angles) when viewed on a map at scale 19. You should not draw more points than are necessary to fulfill this requirement (usually three points suffices):

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To draw a smooth turn on a road, you can use the round corners tool or command.

Attention.

If the turn is part of a T formation at an intersection, adhere to the rules for drawing these types of intersections (see point 3.3.1.5.3.8).

See also section 2.10.2. Map item: related edits.

3.3.1.4. Rules for drawing u-turns with two lines

If a road drawn using two lines has a u-turn:

3.3.1.4.1

Draw a two-way u-turn in fragments that run perpendicular to the lines you drew on the road.

If the u-turn lanes are separated from one another (by a barrier, median, lawn, or traffic island entered as markup), then draw the u-turn using two lines:





3.3.1.4.2

Draw one-way u-turns as arcs and indicate the traffic direction:



3.3.1.5. Rules for drawing intersections

Draw intersections to reflect the actual traffic situation there (in other words, take traffic signs, permitted turns, etc. into account regardless of if the roads that intersect there are drawn using one or two lines).

The following rules apply for drawing intersections:

3.3.1.5.1

If a road intersects with two different roads that only differ by name (in other words, the driver can navigate from one to the other without performing any maneuvers), then enter one general intersection point that applies to both of them (see upper drawing).

If this is not the case, then enter two intersection points (see lower drawing):









3.3.1.5.2

You should only mark separate lines for turns (or exit ramps) at intersections when the lanes for these turns are separated from the main roadway by a barrier, median, solid line, or traffic island entered on the map. You should not draw exit ramps for roads that widen by one or two lanes before an intersection:

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Example of a correct exit ramp drawing when there is a physical barrier:

3.3.1.5.2.1

Draw the intersection formed by an exit ramp and the main road at the location where the solid line that marks the exclusive exit ramp begins or ends (not the location where the solid line that delineates the exit lane along the main road starts or ends).

For example, the drawings on the right show roads where the first lane is exclusively used for turning. The drawings on the left, on the other hand, show roads where the first lane can be used for turning or going straight:

CorrectIncorrect
3.3.1.5.3

When drawing intersections of one-line and two-line roads with barriers:

3.3.1.5.3.1

If one two-line road (and three one-line ones) approach an intersection, then the former may converge into a one-line road both before and after the intersection (depending on the situation):





Attention.

Make the convergence of a two-line road into a one-line one smooth (see point 3.3.1.2.4).

If two two-line roads and one one-line, one-way road approach an intersection, then the convergence of the two-line road into one-line is not drawn down the middle of the road, but rather as indicated in the drawing on the left (the green arrows indicate the permitted traffic directions):



3.3.1.5.3.2

If two two-line roads (and two one-line roads) approach an intersection, then the former will converge into one line roads after the intersection:





3.3.1.5.3.3

If a two-line road forms a T-shaped intersection with a one-line road, then the former will not converge into a one-line road:





3.3.1.5.3.4

If the intersection has two-line roads and barriers, then draw the intersection to reflect where vehicles can actually pass through:

















3.3.1.5.3.5

If a road becomes a different road at an intersection, then the sections of those roads that are within the intersection are not considered components of the road and you should leave the “Part of” field blank:

3.3.1.5.3.6

If the road forms a T-shape at the intersection with another (two-line) road, leave the part of the first road that runs through the two lines of the second road as part of the first road (and give it the same name as the first road):

3.3.1.5.3.7

If the same road runs along both sides of the intersection, then include the sections of road in the intersection among the parts of that road (and assign it the same name as the entire road itself):

3.3.1.5.3.8

T-shaped intersections should intersect at right angles (i.e. the corners should not be rounded). The green arrows on the left indicate an intersection that was drawn correctly. The red arrows  indicates an incorrectly drawn intersection. On the right, an incorrect drawing was corrected:

Correct and incorrectCorrect

This rule applies to all classes of roads, including pedestrian paths. Draw intersections where a high-class road turns and adjoins a less significant road in a similar fashion.

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Turns are only drawn as smooth curves in cases where there is a physical divider or a corresponding marker on the map:

3.3.1.5.3.9

Circular road sections should not share intersection points:

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3.3.1.6. Drawing rules for sidewalks, pedestrian paths, and bike paths

3.3.1.6.1

The Pedestrian paths class comprises the following:

  • Roads that are not wide enough for vehicles

  • Pedestrian paths

  • Sidewalks

  • Roads within parks and cemeteries

  • Pedestrian walkways across railway tracks and motorways

  • Pedestrian staircases, bridges, and tunnels

Note.

When you draw pedestrian roads and sidewalks, you can use road color-coding to represent Pedestrian accessibility (i.e. use different colors to show whether or not a road is accessible to pedestrians).

Refrain from mapping a lot of unpaved pedestrian paths located on restricted territory (such as within a courtyard), even if they are visible on the satellite image. If there are several such roads (paths) that are located next to each other, it suffices to determine which ones are the main ones and only draw those. In determining which roads are the main ones, keep in mind that pedestrian paths should provide access to things like cultural and social service centers, recreation facilities, public transport stops, etc.

Note.

Significant pedestrian paths (such as Arbat St. in Moscow) are class 7 (“Streets in localities”); set the access as pedestrian-only for them.

3.3.1.6.1.1

Don't draw items that resemble sidewalks or pedestrian paths but do not function as such (for example, commercial passageways):

3.3.1.6.1.2

Draw sidewalks, pedestrian paths and bike paths down the middle of their width.

3.3.1.6.2

Lines representing pedestrian crosswalks, sidewalks, and pedestrian zones should form a connected network with the entire road network as a whole.

Networks of alleys and pedestrian roads running through parking lots and cemeteries should connect in the proper location to sidewalks and motorways that have the accessible to pedestrian attribute marked.

For example, the solid green line indicates a sidewalk in the drawing, the dotted line represents a network of pedestrian paths in a cemetery, and the brown line — a section of motorway. The red arrow indicates the point where they intersect. A fragment of the broader road graph is displayed on the drawing:

3.3.1.6.2.1

Fragments of the road network accessible to pedestrians might be disconnected from one another.

For example, the pedestrian roads on the island of Kronstadt near St. Petersburg form a network that pedestrians cannot reach from other areas of the city (they only connect to the A-118 freeway-ringroad).

In these situations, don't try to artificially connect fragments of the road network that are accessible to pedestrians by indicating that some are accessible when they actually aren't.

3.3.1.6.3. Sidewalks
3.3.1.6.3.1

Draw sidewalks as separate roads if the sidewalk is separated off from the roadway by a physical barrier (grass, fences, etc.).

Draw sidewalks that are only separated from the road by the curb as separate roads running alongside roads of class 1-7:

3.3.1.6.3.2

The shoulder of a highway is not considered to be a sidewalk; do not draw it as a separate road.

If the shoulder of a road segment is accessible to pedestrians, then don't draw it as a sidewalk running along that segment, but rather add the accessible to pedestrian attribute to the applicable segment.

3.3.1.6.3.3

To make sure that the road network is still connected in places where a sidewalk physically ends but a motorway that has a shoulder that is accessible to pedestrians continues, there must be a pedestrian street fragment that forms a smooth technical connection between the sidewalk line and the motorway (see the green dotted line in the drawing):

3.3.1.6.3.3.1

Don't draw technical connections between pedestrian roads and sidewalks on freeways (class 1 roads). For example, the sidewalk line at a stop on the MKAD (Moscow ring road) ends on the map at the spot where the sidewalk physically ends:

3.3.1.6.3.4

If there are no aboveground or underground pedestrian walkways or if there are no signs or painted crosswalks (“zebras”), then continue drawing the pedestrian road through the intersection if the following are true about the intersecting road:

  • There are no more than 3 traffic lanes

  • There are no solid lines between lanes:

3.3.1.6.3.5

In places where a pedestrian road approaches a motorway, you can draw the intersection the following ways:

  • Along the pedestrian crosswalk (if there is one)

  • With no pedestrian crosswalk (if the intersecting motorway has no solid lane marker):

If the intersecting motorway has a solid lane marker, then you can draw the pedestrian road either as a separate road leading to the closest pedestrian crosswalk, or (if there is no road shoulder) you can draw it as a dead end:

3.3.1.6.4. Pedestrian crosswalks
3.3.1.6.4.1

Draw lines representing pedestrian crosswalks down the middle of the crosswalks themselves.

3.3.1.6.4.2

If the pedestrian crosswalk ends at a square that is accessible to pedestrians, then the points where the crossing ends and the entrance to the square begins are connected using segments of hypothetical pedestrian paths. Draw these paths at right angles from each other (if possible) and keep their use to a minimum.

Pedestrian roads display as yellow lines in the drawing, underground crossings — yellow dotted lines, hypothetical connecting paths — green lines:

3.3.1.6.4.3

Lines for aboveground and underground pedestrian crosswalks lead to the point where the ascent/descent begins (if the ascent/descent includes section of level ground, simplify your drawing so that there are no more than two sections):

3.3.1.6.4.4

Draw double pedestrian crosswalks (i.e. when two “zebra crossings” are located close to each other and you can only go in one direction on each of them) as a single line with the direction of traffic going both ways.

3.3.1.6.4.5

Only draw pedestrian crosswalks over railways in the following cases:

  • If the crosswalk is aboveground
  • If the crosswalk is underground
  • If the crosswalk is clearly delineated at ground level (with barriers, a surface covering)
3.3.1.6.5. Bike paths

Only draw bike paths as separate roads in cases where they are physically distinguished from the surrounding area as bike paths and road signs/markings confirm this:

In all other cases it is enough to set the Accessible to bicyclists attribute for those sections of motorway (or pedestrian) roads.

If there is unrestricted access to a bike path from a pedestrian road/sidewalk, then the pedestrian roads connected to that sidewalk must lead to the bike path (and you should not change their accessibility marking):

3.3.1.6.6.

Don't draw pedestrian roads that go through interiors of buildings.

3.3.1.7. Rules for drawing road barriers.

To make sure that automatically plotted routes won't include road sections that are blocked by barriers (security checkpoints, lifting gates, fences, road signs like “Entrance prohibited” or “Traffic prohibited”, etc.) or pass through restricted territory, follow these rules for drawing road barriers:

3.3.1.7.1

Parts of the road that are set off from the road network by security checkpoints or lifting gates are drawn as separate road sections (other than checkpoints operated by the police, which are not marked with a “Restricted entry sign”). A road intersection is created at the location of a lifting gate or police security checkpoint. If the road section was created earlier, split it into two:

Add a road sign like “Restricted entry” to the intersection:

Exiting will remain unrestricted (i.e. you do not need to link the intersection with an exit restriction).

If there are several entrances to a territory (one for guests, one for service personnel, etc.), then add a “Restricted entry” road sign to all the entrances. For service entrances, you should also add a Restricted maneuver road sign at the closest road intersection to “the area affected by the sign”.

For example, a blue arrow marks the guest entrance on the drawing, a red arrow ─ the service entrance, and the green arrow ─ the location of the restricted maneuver sign (i.e. the closest road intersection to the affected territory):

3.3.1.7.2
Use the “Restricted entry” sign (see point 3.3.1.7.1) to represent the “Traffic prohibited” or “Motor vehicle traffic prohibited” signs that appear on city streets: these restrictions allow one to reach their home or workplace but restrict general traffic.
Place “Restricted entry” sign directly at the road intersection after the actual location of the sign.
3.3.1.7.3
When drawing the road network on a territory that includes checkpoints or lifting gates, assign the road section accessibility value that reflects the real-world situation. If it is technically possible to travel within the borders of the territory in question, there are no additional restrictions by vehicle type posted on road signs, and an Entrance by Permit sign was already placed at the entrance or exit, then you should not remove the vehicle accessibility attribute.
3.3.1.7.4

If there is an “Entrance prohibited” sign on the road, then split the road network at the point where the sign is located and link a Restricted maneuver road sign to the “intersection” of those road sections. The sign should traffic passage in the indicated direction.

If there is a traffic barrier on the road (for example, if a concrete block restricts traffic within a building block), then split the road network at the barrier location and link two “Restricted maneuver” road signs to the intersection of those road sections. The signs should prohibit traffic around both sides of the barrier.

When the road network is drawn this way, it does noes not split at the location of the barrier, but no routes can be plotted that intersect with the barrier.

3.3.1.7.4.1

If traffic laws (represented by road signs or markings) forbid passage but individual vehicles can obtain special permits to pass through, then your road sign should reflect the general rule. For example, trucks are forbidden within the Third Transport Ring in Moscow but individual vehicles can obtain permits to enter: In this example, you'd mark a Restricted maneuver, rather than Restricted entry (see point 3.3.1.7.4).